The East Yorkshire Regiment
The East Yorkshire Regiment was the local army regiment, which many Hull men joined and died.
The origins of the East Yorkshire Regiment (The Duke of York's Own), can be traced back to 1685. During the Great War 1914-1918, the East Yorkshires raised 21 Battalions.
In August 1914, the East Yorkshire Regiment, consisted of two Regular battalions, (the 1st and 2nd EYR), a Special Reserve (3rd East Yorkshire Battalion) and two Territorial battalions, (the 4th and 5th East Yorkshire Cyclists Battalions). After the outbreak of war, eight Service (Kitchener) battalions were raised (the 6th to 13th East Yorkshire regiments) as well as two Reserve regiments (14th and 15th) and two Garrison battalions (1st and 2nd). The 4th Battalion Territorial Force, formed a second and third line battalion, 2/4th and 3/4th. Ten of the nineteen active battalions went on active service.
Each Battalion consisted of around 1,000 men, divided into 4 Companies of 250 men each. Each Company was again divided into 4 Platoons of around 60 men, and each Platoon was divided into 4 'Sections' of about 15 men. It was amongst these small sections, that most men experienced the war, with their East Yorkshire Regiment.
At the outbreak of war, the 1st East Yorkshire Battalion was posted to France in September 1914 and saw action at the Battle of the Aisne, where it lost 73 men and 8 Officers killed and wounded. The 2nd East Yorkshire Battalion, which was in India at the start of the war, transferred to France in January 1915. In October 1915 the 2nd EYR was then posted to Salonika, where it remained for the rest of the war fighting Bulgarians. The 3rd 'Special Reserve' East Yorkshire Battalion was mobilised in Beverley and was used as a training unit, training over 15,600 men during the war. The 3rd Battalion also defended the Holderness coast against potential invasion, with the 5th East Yorkshire Cyclist Battalion. The 4th Territorial Battalion saw service overseas.
When war was declared, the East Yorskhires, raised an additional Eight Service (Kitchener) battalions (numbered the 6th to 13th EYR), as well as two Reserve units (the 14th and 15th battalions), and the 1st and 2nd Garrison battalions. The 6th, 7th & 8th Battailons were formed in Beverley. The 10th, 11th, 12th, 13th & 14th Battalions, were raised in Hull and became known as the 'Hull Pals'.
During the First World War, the East Yorkshire regiment fought on the Western Front, at Gallipolli, in Macedonia and Egypt. It was awarded with 21 Battle Honours and 4 VC's and lost 7,483 men. As the war ended, Service Battalions were disbanded and the East Yorkshire Regiment, reurned to its two original regular battalions. After the war, the 1st East Yorkshire Regiment, was sent to Ireland, where it remained until 1922. The 2nd East Yorkshire Batallion returned to India, and later served in Basra and Iraq.
Yorkshire as a County raised an army of 400,00 men during the Great War, as many as the whole continent of Australia. Hull supplied 70,000 of these men. The 28 Yorkshire battalions that existed before the war grew into 83 and included 333,000 Yorkshiremen. The Yorkshire battalions suffered 230,000 casualties and earned 35 Victoria Crosses during the First World War. They served in about 27 different Divisions and all theatres of war except Mesopotamia. These figures were given by Field Marshall, William Robertson, DSO, at the unveiling of the Hull Cenotaph on the 20th September 1924.
East Yorkshire Battalions during the Great War 1914-1918.
- Regular Battalions
- 1st Battalion. August 1914: stationed in York. Part of the 18th Brigade, 6th Division. Moved on 8 August to Edinburgh, then six days later to Cambridge. Landed at St Nazaire on 10 September 1914. 26 November 1915: transferred to 64th Brigade, 21st Division.
- 2nd Battalion. August 1914: stationed in Kamptee. India. Returned to England and landed in December 1914. Moved to Hursley Park near Winchester. December 1914 : attached to 83rd Brigade, 28th Division. 16 January 1915 : landed at Le Havre. 26 October 1915 : sailed from Marseilles to Egypt and on to Salonika.
- 3rd Battalion (York East Riding Regiment of Militia). Formed August 1914: stationed in Beverley. A training unit, it remained in UK throughout the war. Moved within a few days of declaration of war to Hedon, for duty as the Humber Garrison. Made the short journey in April 1916 to Withernsea.
- Territorial Battalions
- 1/4th Battalion. Formed August 1914 : in Londesborough Barracks, Hull. Part of the York and Durham Brigade, Northumbrian Division. 17 April 1915 : landed at Boulogne. 12 May 1915 : formation became 150th Brigade, 50th (Northumbrian) Division. 15 July 1918 : reduced to cadre and transferred to Lines of Communication. 16 August 1918 :transferred to 116th Brigade, 39th Division. 7 November 1918 : demobilised in France.
- 2/4th Battalion.. Formed at Darlington in September 1914 as a second line battalion. Moved to Hull in November 1914.February 1915 : moved back to Darlington and came under orders of 189th Brigade, 63rd (2nd Northumbrian) Division. In July 1915, moved to Cramlington and in November 1915 to Retford. Division was broken up in July 1916 and Brigade moved to Catterick. Moved in November 1916 to Bermuda, remaining there throughout the rest of the war.
- 3/4th Battalion. Formed at Hull on 19 June 1915, but soon moved to South Dalton. 8 April 1916 : became 4th Reserve Battalion. By September 1916 was at Catterick. In 1917 was at Hornsea and by November 1918 was at South Dalton, part of Humber Garrison.
- 5th (Cyclist) Battalion. August 1914 : Based in Park Street, Hull. Remained in UK throughout the war. Soon moved to Louth and then in May 1915 to Withernsea. Moved on from there to Newbiggin and became part of Tyne Garrison. (Photo below is of the 5th Cyclist EY Bn. based in Park Street Hull)
- New Armies
- 6th (Service) Battalion (Pioneers). Formed at Beverley on 27 August 1914. Came under orders of 32nd Brigade, 11th (Northern) Division. December 1914 : became the Pioneer Battalion to the Division. 1 July 1915: sailed from Avonmouth for Gallipoli via Mudros and landed at Suvla Bay 7 August 1915. 10 July 1916 : landed at Marseilles.
- 7th (Service) Battalion. Formed at Beverley on 16 September 1914. Came under orders of 50th Brigade, 17th (Northern) Division. 14 July 1915 : landed at Boulogne.
- 8th (Service) Battalion. Formed at Beverley on 22 September 1914. Came under orders of 62nd Brigade, 21st Division. 9 September 1915 : landed at Boulogne. 16 November 1915 : transferred to 8th Brigade, 3rd Division. 17 February 1918 : disbanded in France. Troops formed 10th Entrenching Bn with men from the 12th West Yorks.
- 9th (Reserve) Battalion. Formed in York on 9 November 1914. Formed in York on 9 November 1914 as a Service battalion, coming under orders of 90th Brigade, original 30th Division. 10 April 1915: became a Reserve Battalion. Moved in May 1915 to Harrogate and in September of that year to Rugeley Camp, Cannock Chase. On 1 September 1916 : converted into 7th Training Reserve Battalion in 2nd Reserve Brigade
- 10th (1st Hull Pals) Battalion (Hull Commercials). Formed in Hull on 29 August 1914 by Lord Nunburnholme and the East Riding TF Association. Commonly known as the Hull Commercials Battalion. June 1915 : came under orders of 92nd Brigade, 31st Division. 15 December 1915 : moved to Egypt. Went on to France in March 1916.
- 11th (2nd Hull Pals) Battalion (Hull Tradesmen). Formed in Hull on 2 September 1914 by Lord Nunburnholme. In June 1915 : came under orders of 92nd Brigade, 31st Division. 15 December 1915 : moved to Egypt. Went on to France in March 1916.
- 12th (3rd Hull Pals) Battalion (Hull Sportsmen). Formed in Hull on 11 August 1914 by Lord Nunburnholme and the East Riding TF Association. Commonly known as the Hull Sportsmen’s Battalion. In June 1915 : came under orders of 92nd Brigade, 31st Division. 15 December 1915 : moved to Egypt. Went on to France in March 1916. On 8 February 1918 : disbanded in France.
- 13th (4th Hull Pals) Battalion (Hull T'Others). Formed in Hull on 11 August 1914 by Lord Nunburnholme and the East Riding TF Association. Commonly known as the T’Others! June 1915 : came under orders of 92nd Brigade, 31st Division. 15 December 1915 : moved to Egypt. Went on to France in March 1916. On 8 February 1918 : disbanded in France
- 14th (Reserve) Battalion. Formed in Lichfield in August 1915 as a Reserve battalion and moved to Clipstone Camp. By April 1916 was at Seaton Delaval. 1 September 1916 : became 90th Training Reserve Battalion of 21st Reserve Brigade and moved to Blyth.
- 15th (Reserve) Battalion. Formed at Seaton Delaval in February 1916 by the 14th Bn. as local Reserve.
1 September 1916 : absorbed by 15th Bn York & Lancs, and became 91st Training Reserve Battalion of 21st Reserve Brigade.
- 17th (Transport Workers) Northumberland Fusiliers Battalion, Formed in Hull Docks. Known as the 'Railway Pals'.
- 1st Garrison Battalion. Formed in Sheffield in October 1915. Moved to Lichfield in November 1915 and in February 1916 went to India. Joined Allahabad Brigade in 8th (Lucknow) Division. Moved to Lucknow Brigade in same Division in March 1918.
- 2nd (Home Service) Garrison Battalion. Formed in Hull in April 1916. In August 1917 was converted into 8th Battalion of Royal Defence Corps.
12th EYR in Snow Suits - Arleux sector, 9 January 1918. 10th EYR - Doullens 28.6.16 8th EYR - Going to the Line - Ypres 5.10.17
The links below provide more information of these Battalions and some stories of the men who served with the East Yorkshire Regiment
The East Yorkshire Regiment Battalions http://www.1914-1918.net/eastyorks.htm
What was an Infantary Battalion? - http://www.1914-1918.net/whatbatt.htm
THE GALLIPOLI CAMPAIGN - The East Yorkshire's fight at Tekke Teppe.
The Gallipoli Peninsula runs in a south-westerly direction into the Aegean Sea between the Hellesport (now known as the Dardanelles) and the bay of Melas, which today is known as Saros Bay. At the time of the First World War, this narrow sea strait was a direct route to the Russian Empire, but was controlled by the Turkish Ottoman Empire, allied to Germany. In an attempt to break the deadlock on the Western Front, the Allies launched an ambitious attack on Gallipoli Peninsular on the 25th April 1915. They hoped that capturing the Dardanelles Straits would help supply Russia, defeat Turkey and encourage Greece and Bulgaria to join the allies in the war.
The allies invaded the Gallipoli Peninsular at several beaches. They were met by stiff Turkish resistance, which confined them to narrow beachheads. The Campaign fighting was fierce, attritional and largely static. The first two weeks alone at Gallipoli, saw a higher rate of allied casualties than the Battle of the Somme, when measured as a percentage of those committed. Forced to dig in around the shorelines, the Allies spent the next eight months trying to capture the high ground and break free from the Peninsular. Eventually, the Allies were forced to withdraw from Gallipoli on the 9th January 1916. The eight month Gallipoli Campaign was a famous Turkish victory, costly to both sides. The Allied campaign was plagued by ill-defined goals, poor planning, insufficient artillery, inexperienced troops, inaccurate maps and intelligence, overconfidence, inadequate equipment and logistics, and tactical deficiencies at all levels. Geography also proved a significant factor with the Turks holding the higher ground. Over 131,000 men were killed during the 8 month Gallipoli Campaign. The Allies lost some 250,000 men, including 140,000 men through disease. Turkish casualties were estimated to be at least 280,000, with 86,000 killled.
Gallipoli is best remembered for forging the National identity of Australia and New Zealand who suffered severely there, and for the remarkable evacuation of the Peninsular, which was achieved with the loss of only one life.
Links The Gallipoli Campaign http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gallipoli_Campaign
The Gallipoli campaign has been keenly debated over the last century. Some believe it was a poorly planned exercise that failed in Whitehall, long before any serviceman set foot on the peninsular. Others argue that the campaign could have been successful, but may have made little difference to the main struggle on the Western Front. We can only speculate. However, history has largely overlooked how close ‘D’ company and HQ Battalion, of the 6th East Yorkshire Regiment, came to winning the campaign on the 8th and 9th Aug 1915. They failed (despite claims otherwise). The following is an interesting and little known episode in the Gallipoli story.
8th - 9th August 1915 – The 6th East Yorkshire Assault on Tekke Tepe Hill
Tekke Tepe, is a hill about 800ft in height, in the centre of a series of ridges disposed, roughly in the shape of a horseshoe and enclosing Suvla Bay. General Sir Ian Hamilton, Commander of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force, maintained that capturing this hill was crucial to succeed at Gallipoli. The 6th East Yorkshire Battalion landed at Gallipoli in the early hours of the 7th August 1915, with 22 Officers and 750 other ranks. (Three Officers and 153 men had been left in reserve at Imbros). Their attack on Tekke Tepe, is vividly recorded in the 6th (Pioneer) Battalion East Yorkshire War Diary, which is with the 11th Divisional Diaries. (This diary is easy to miss as it is not part of the line Battalion War Diary bundles. It is included in the Division papers, as the Pioneers were technically Divisional troops, although it seems they were attached to the 32nd Brigade for this operation). Capt. V Kidd, Adjutant of the 8th Battalion Duke of Wellington's Regt (West Ridings), also recorded the event in his personal account, which is an appendix to the 8th Battalion War Diary notes. Also the 6th Battalion York & Lancs. Regiment War Diary, records the Turks' attack over Tekke Tepe.
8th Aug 1915. Orders were received to join the 32nd Brigade with the WEST YORKS on our left, to attack and hold a position running from CHOCOLATE HILL to SULAJIK 105 C 6. The records of these orders have been lost. The Battalion advanced B [Coy] on the left under Major, BRAY, D [Coy] on the right under Capt GRANT, C [Coy] in second line and A [Coy] in reserve. Lt Col, MOORE advanced with the 1st line. At first no opposition was met with, but occupying the ridge which joins up with CHOCOLATE HILL and was about W by S from ANAFARTA SAGIR heavy firing was encountered. (Margin: Ref to ANAFARTA SAGIR sheet 1:20,000 Gallipoli Map 105 C 6) Capt ROGERS was killed and shortly afterwards Major, ESTRIDGE was wounded in the arm. The Turks employed numerous snipers and shot particularly at our men as they went for water at a well. Parties were sent out, but were unable to find them. The position was entrenched on the reverse slope during the day and further forward during the night. Two officer's patrols were sent out during the evening: At about11:30 pm orders were received for the Battalion to retire to the points held by the WEST RIDING Regt and to occupy and improve a Turkish trench there. 11:30 pm. The orders have been lost. The men were tired and exhausted and short of water moving often in the dark led to equipment being mislaid.
9th Aug 1915. We found the West Riding Regiment in a vacant Turkish Trench at about 1:30 am. After some confusion getting the men into the trench in the dark, orders (lost) were received at 3:30 a.m. (late in reaching us) to deliver an attack (orders lost) on TEKKE TEPE (Sheet 119 O2) the West Riding Regt was to attack KAVALA TEPE (Sheet 119 C7) on our left. The men were at this stage in a state of extreme exhaustion and hunger. The Battalion moved northwards out of the trench in the following order D, C, B, A after passing SULAJIK we took a NE route crossing the dry beds of the streams.
Verbal orders had been given by Lt Col Moore that in the attack D and B Companies should form the first line (D on the left, B on the right) A Coy (Capt WILLATS) the second line and C Coy (now under Capt PRINGLE) the reserve. LtCol, MOORE was with D Coy. The other three companies due to the extreme exhaustion of the men and absence of explicit orders failed to keep in touch with D Coy who proceeded to advance up the lower slopes of the hill without waiting for B Coy to come into position on their right or for the other two companies to get into place. D Coy with LtColMOORE and 2 Lt STILL (Acting Adjutant) and HQ party seemed to have encountered no opposition at first.
It was only when they were up the first shoulder (Sheet 119 L4) that the strength of the enemy was disclosed. Fire was poured in from concealed Turkish trenches and our men were unable to hold their ground. There was considerable confusion due to the rapid advance of D Coy and the fact that the other Companies had lost touch. D Coy suffered heavily. Capt GRANT had been wounded in the hand early in the engagement – Lt Col MOORE, 2 Lt STILL, Capt ELLIOTT, Lt RAWSTORNE, 2 Lt WILSON were all missing when what remained of the Coy fell back. A general retirement took place during which there was much mixing of units due to the Battalion failing to keep its formation. After two other stands had been made in conjunction with the West Riding Regt a line was eventually taken up along a line running N from (Sheet 118 V6). Reinforcements came up here and about 13:00 the Battalion was relieved and ordered to concentrate at the cut on A Beach (Sheet 104 B1). All orders and dispatches relating to these are lost as the orderly who carried them is missing……[A long list of Officer casualties follows] Other Ranks: Killed 20, Wounded 104, Wounded and Missing 28, Missing 183.This night the battalion bivouacked on 'A' Beach near the cut."
The withdrawal of the East Yorkshires of the night of 8th August was difficult. There was no moon and it was pitch dark. It was almost impossible to find equipment and assemble the battalion quickly to move off to Sulajik. All the time, the Turks continued their fire on theEast Yorkshire, while they moved back and reached the position in the early hours. The East Yorkshire soldiers on arrival at 1.30am, dropped with exhaustion. Between 3 and 3.30am, all Company Commanders were suddenly ordered to report to the Colonel. They were told that the 6th East Yorkshire Regiment had received orders to seize the very high hill above Anafarta (Tekke Tepe).
The West Ridings would attack another hill on the left (Kavak Tepe). As the orders had arrived late, the battalion had to move off immediately. The men in a state of exhaustion, thirsty and hungry had to be pulled out of their trenches. Colonel HGA Moore started off with HQ and D companies. When the three remaining companies assembled they found Colonel Moore, their Commanding Officer had gone ahead. In crossing the open space between the trenches at Sulajik and the foot of the hill, little or no opposition was encountered. Two officers of the 67th Field Company Royal Engineers, Major F.W. Brunner and Lt. V.Z. Ferranti accompanied Lt Col. Moore. Lt Ferranti was ordered to wait and follow up with the next company of East Yorkshires that came along. The group split into three parties Col Moore., Maj. Brunner and 2 Lt Still, with one party, Capt. Steel with another and Capt. Elliott with the third. As they reached the lower slopes of the hill north of Baka Baba, the rifle fire from the snipers became more insistent. They carried on up Tekke Tepe, the casualties becoming more serious. Major Brunner was killed and many others shot down. The survivors, Col. Moore and 2nd Lt. Still leading, reached the summit along with Capt., Elliot, Lt., Rawstone and between 12 and 30 men. They were cut off by the advancing Turks and the survivors, five in number, including Mr. Still, were captured.
This little party of East Yorkshire men and Engineers achieved the brilliant feat of reaching a position, farther east on the heights above Suvla Bay than any other troops in the entire campaign. Of the 750 men in the 6th (Pioneer) East Yorkshire Battalion, 347, or roughly 46% had become casualties in just 3 days. Officer casualties were 15, or 75% of those who landed on 7th August. They included two Officers killed in action; five wounded; six 'Missing in Action' and 2 'Wounded and Missing'. Most of those 'Missing in Action' at Gallipoli were actually killed. Searching this website shows that 47 men, killed with the 6th Yorkshires came from Hull, and ten others died on the 9th August 1915 at Suvla Bay, fighting for New Zealand, the West Ridings and other regiments.
After the War, all captured British Officers were required to make a written statement to the War Office, about the events surrounding their capture. Capt R D Elliott, 6th Battalion East Yorkshire Regiment captured at Tekke Tepe recounted how they reached the top of hill. Another account by Lieutenant, John Still wrote. “About thirty of us reached the top of hill, perhaps a few more. And when there were about twenty left we turned and went down again. We had reached the highest point and furthest point that British forces from SuvlaBay were destined to reach. But we naturally knew nothing of that.
General Sir Ian Hamilton, Commander of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force, wrote in his War Diary, that Tekke Tepe was the key hill, overlooking Suvla Bay. He believed British troops had actually reached the summit of the hill on August 9, and that, had they been given proper support, victory was in sight. However, until 1923 he had no definite evidence to confirm his belief. In October 1923, he received a letter printed in The Times, (on 30th October 1923), from Mr. John Still, a tea planter in Ceylon, who had been adjutant of the 6thBattalion East Yorkshire Regiment, a unit of the 32 Brigade, during the Suvla operations. He gave details of his own experiences on Tekke Tepe as follows:-.
“I was the only officer on that hill who had spent years in jungle and on hills and was in consequence able to appreciate things accurately. We had been ordered to take up that position on the map and we took it up. I fixed our exact position by prismatic compass. We fought all day there and had a good few casualties including two officers (or three), and then we were taken off again at night "because the regiments to right and left of you have not been able to get up". That was the night of August 8. On our right were a Sergeant and two men only of another regiment, lost and re-found by us. I forget their unit, but I can still see the identifying mark on their backs in my mind's eye: it was a sort of castle in yellow. Beyond them there was a gap right away to Chocolate Hill. On our left was not as you state another regiment, but only a weak half company of the West Yorkshires with two officers of whom one was killed, and the other – Davenport– severely wounded. And this left us in the air. Your orders given to General Stopford at 6pm never reached us on Scimitar Hill. Why? They knew where we were, for I was in touch by day with Brigade H.Q. signalers on Hill 10 or close to it. By night I lost contact for both my lamps failed me. As you justly say, anyone with half an eye could see Tekke Tepe was the key to the whole position. Even I, a middle-aged amateur who had done a bit of big game shooting and knocking about saw it at once. We reconnoitered it, sent an officer and my signaler corporal to climb it, and got through to Brigade H.Q. the message giving our results. I sent it myself. The hill was then empty. Next morning you saw or heard that troops had actually reached the top of Tekke Tepe. Yes they had. A worn and weak company, D Company, of my regiment, together with my Colonel (Moore). Major Brunner, of the Royal Engineers., and myself started up that hill. About thirty got to the top: of them five got down again to the bottom, and of those three lived to the end of the war. I was one of them. You wonder why we did not 'dig in' (pages 78 and 79 of your Volume II) as we had lots of time. There, Sir is where that war was lost. You sent a Brigade at that empty hill on the afternoon of the 8th. Actually, owing to staff work being so bad, only a battalion received orders to attack, and they did not receive those orders until dawn on the 9th. I received them myself as adjutant. The order ran to this effect: "The C.-in-C. considers this operation essential to the success of the whole campaign". The order was sent out on the late afternoon of the 8th, when we were on Scimitar Hill. It reached us at dawn on the 9th in a Turkish trench at Sulejik. In the meanwhile, for those hours more precious to the world than we even yet can judge, the Brigade Major was lost! Good God why didn't they send a man who knew the country? He was lost, lost, lost and it drives one almost mad to think of it. Excuse Me. Next morning (from the order) at dawn on the 9th you saw some of our fellows climbing cattle tracks. You don't place them exactly where I think you really saw them, but as I know, there were none just precisely where you say you saw them, I am pretty certain it was us you saw from the ship, only we were half a mile north of where you describe.Then we climbed Tekke Tepe.Simultaneously the Turks attacked through the gap from Anafarta. Their attack cut in behind D Company and held back the rest of the battalion who fought in the trench, with the Duke of Wellington's on their left. We went on, and, as I said, not one of us got back again. A few were taken prisoner. I was slightly wounded, and stayed three years and three months as a prisoner. Later that morning we who survived were again taken up Tekke Tepe by its northern ravine on the west side. Turkish troops were simply pouring down it and the other ravines. On the top of Tekke Tepe were four field guns camouflaged with boughs of scrub oak, and a Brigade H.Q. was just behind the ridge. I had a few minutes conversation there with the Turkish Brigadier in French. But I am coming home on leave in March or April next. May I have the honour of meeting you and going over it on the map?I think much might be cleared up that was still obscure when you wrote your book. There are one or two things one prefers not to write.Please let me know your wishes in this matter. I loved your book and I want to do any small thing possible to complete your picture. Yours truly (Signed) JOHN STILL, Victoria Commemoration Buildings, Nos: 40 and 41 Ward Street, Kandy, Ceylon Sept 19.
Second Lieutenant, James Theodore Underhill, was a 22 year old, adjutant serving with the 6th East Yorkshire Battalion at Galipolli and was the Signaler at Tekke Tepe. His letter to the Times, published 14thFebruary 1925, recounts the following”....Being a qualified land surveyor, and experienced in the use and construction of maps and the knowledge of the country, I was well able to keep notes of our positions and was the officer mentioned in your letter who took the patrol up Tekke Tepe. In fact I still have your signal corporal’s field glasses which I took from him while on the hill, my own being smashed by a rifle bullet whilst using them on this patrol. My report disagrees with your letter in a few minor details – for instance while on Scimitar Hill, the 9th West Yorkshires were on our left, as I was actually speaking with their officers on their own right flank, but they were withdrawn before us, God knows why. Again, while you say Tekke Tepe was not occupied, it was held very lightly by patrols. We ran into two of them before reaching the top; out of one we bagged two Turks, the other escaped us. There were also three short lengths of partially dug trenches unoccupied while we were there, but showing signs of most recent occupation. Further, you say that the Turks came in behind D Company and the rest of the battalion fought in the trench. This is not quite right. We had advance fully 1500 yards (and I was with the rear company “B”) before we encountered the Turks. When we did, it was a ‘free for all’ bayonet affair, with the Turks outnumbering us about three to one. I saw nothing of the West Yorkshires as you mention, but the West Ridings who were to have supported the Brigade!!! attack were present. However, my report and your letter agree in the great fundamental point, this, that Tekke Tepe should have been taken on the evening of August 8. That this could and would have been done had there not been a lamentable failure of the Staff, I think goes unquestioned by those of us who had an accurate knowledge of the conditions; it was the loss of the Gallipoli campaign. I am even of the opinion that, that had the Staff work not been so rotten, and that had the attack in the early morning of August 9 been by three battalions instead of us alone, it might have been successful. If you remember, the attack was to have been a brigade affair, three battalions in attack with one in support. The supports (the West Ridings) were there, but where the other two battalions were, God alone knows. I think all of Kitchener’sArmy who took part in this landing and the following few days felt it intensely that they were blamed by the Staff for the failure on the grounds of being green troops. Compared with later experiencesin France, the 11thand 10thDivision fought as well as any troops ever did, be they Regulars or otherwise, and I am sure that those of us who had the honour to belong to either the 11thor 10thDivisions feel grateful to you for coming out plainly and placing the blame where it so justly belongs." *
Some argue that the 6th East Yorkshire attack on Tekke Tepe (actually in effect only D Coy and Battalion HQ) never reached the summit on the 9th August. Also the Officers were mistaken when they said that they reached the summit or had made it up after the war to compensate for being taken Prisoner. Also as most of the East Yorkshires were killed or captured, all the official reports were compiled after the events, by persons who had not been present. The War diaries show very clearly that patrols sent by the 6th East Yorkshires on the 8th August (the day before) met with little opposition, but a later advance on the 9th August to exploit this opportunity by the 6th East Yorkshires, supported by the 8th Battalion Duke of Wellington's Regiment (West Riding) and 67 Coy Royal Engineers was too late. It was repulsed by Turkish reinforcements, with heavy loss to D Coy of the 6th East Yorkshires, who advanced without waiting for the remainder of the Battalion. However, the primary sources of Lieutenants John Still and James Underhill, who both were there at the time, claim that they did occupy Tekke Tepe. John Still was a 35 year old, tea planter, use to the hills of Ceylon and Underhill was a newly qualified land surveyor, aged 22. Both would have known if they had reached the top of Tekke Tepe. There was no collusion between these two men to make up their story. Lt., Stlll was captured and spent the rest of the war in Turkey. He believed he had been the only surviving Officer in the attack. Underhill although wounded in the chest, survived the war and then emigrated to Vancouver. If they did occupy Tekke Teppe, it would have been the furthest allied advance on the Peninsula, and if they had held this stategic position, the Gallipoli Campaign would have succeeded. After 100 years we can only speculate. It is perhaps best to concentrate on the bravery of the 6th (Pioneer) East Yorkshire Regiment, who stormed the hill with limited support in difficult conditions. These Pioneers were used in (arguably) the most important assault of the campaign. They were ably led, by Col Moore, (who had risen from the ranks) and were decimated within sight of their ultimate objective. Their attack was undermined by appalling planning and procrastination. There was no time for orders or battle preparation. It was a fragmented, uncoordinated attack, characterised by perhaps over-zealous leadership, tactical naivety, exhaustion and fatigue. (The men had to be kicked into action, from a state of near exhaustion). This superhuman effort resulted in failure, then denial and blame. The 6th East Yprkshire who had landed at Gallipoli in the early hours of the 7th August 1915, with 22 Officers and 750 Other ranks, had within 3 days, lost 15 Officers and 347 other ranks. Over 50 men from Hull died in Gallipoli on the 9th August 1915. The story of the 6th East Yorkshire at Tekke Tepe, is not a particularly well researched, or well understood part of the campaign, outside a few specialists, but it encapsulates everything in one small action that was wrong about Gallipoli.
The following recounts the progress of the 6Th East Yorkshires, after the Tekke Tepe attack.
21st August 1915 – the attack on Scimitar Hill
Wyrall's "East Yorkshire Regiment in the Great War" shows that the 6th East Yorkshire Regiment had been in reserve from 10th to the 20th August at Nibrunesi Point where they had dug themselves in at the base of a cliff. On 20th August the 6thEast Yorkshires relieved the Northumberland Fusiliers in trenches South East of Chocolate Hill. They came under the orders of 34th Brigade who would attack "Hill W" the next morning.
The 6th Battalion were to dig in and support the Lancashire Fusiliers and the Dorset’s, who would attack the next morning. There was a delay due to lost orders and confusion, and the attack did not commence until 3pm on the 21st. When the Dorset’s and Lancashire’s left their trenches the 6th East Yorkshiresmoved forward to occupy these trenches. The Dorset’s and the Lancashire’s ran into stubborn resistance and so most of the 6th East Yorkshires were sent forward to support them. The 6th East Yorkshire's captured a Turkish trench in front of them and awaited relief. The 6th East York (Pioneers) had occupied Hill 70 (Scimitar Hill), next to W Hill the most vital of all the semicircle of heights overlooking Suvla Bay and were there only waiting for the brigade's further advance upon W Hill or Anafarta Sagir, to both of which it is the key. They held this trench overnight, but it became impossible to hold the next morning (22nd August) as the number of Turks increased and they had no bombs.
Around 7.30 am the 6th East Yorkshires retreated to their original trenches and later that night they were relieved and moved back to their original reserve trenches at Nibrunesi point the following morning. The 6th East Yorkshire casualties by 22nd August 1915, included 26 Officers and 628 men. Officer casualties were 80% and other ranks 68%.
20th October 1915
The War Diary for the 6th (Service) Battalion East Yorkshire Regiment (Pioneers) on 20th Oct 1915 is edited below. It was written in very feint pencil and just legible. The Battalion was scattered over a place known to the troops as ‘Piccadilly Circus’ or 'Shrapnel Valley' due to heavy Turkish shelling. There are no records of battle casualties, but the War Diary contains long lists of men admitted to hospital and lists of men who arrived in drafts. Notably most posted to D Coy - a stark reminder that D Coy was virtually wiped out on the lower slopes of Tekke Tepe on 9th August.
"Working Parties A Coy Piccadilly Circus, Div Head Quarters ^ well [illegible - above?] XI Signal Depot, Field Ambulance dugouts. B Coy 9th A.C [Army Corps] New Head Quarters, Park Lane, Holborn, Jephson's Post Road (Oxford St). D Coy 9th A.C Head Quarters, 67th Coy RE - SW Mounted Brigade dugouts, Cannon Street. Two general road repairing parties under 2/Lieuts SIEBER and SCOTCHER. 2/Lieut HICKEY was wounded in the arm by shrapnel bullet whilst working near Piccadilly Circus & admitted into 35th Field Ambulance."
Gallipoli 100 Years on - http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-32456487
* (I am grateful to Edward Underhill who supplied the following information on his grandfather - 2nd Lt., James Theodore Underhill was born in Moseley, Staffordshire, 1892. His family emigrated to Canada in 1894 and he obtained his Land Surveyor's qualification at McGill University (West) which was later to become the University of British Columbia. Upon the outbreak of the war, he gained his qualification as an Infantry Officer in January of 1915 at the Provisional School of Infantry in Vancouver, BC and subsequently travelled to England, having missed the opportunity to join the first contingent of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF). He was commissioned in March of 1915, joining the 6th (Service ) Battalion, East Yorkshire Regiment, as 2nd Lieutenant by the time of the actions around Teke Tepe. He was shot in the chest during the Gallipoli attack and wounded again in the right knee on 1/7/16 at Serre, serving with the 12th King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry. He later served with the Canandian 245th Siege Battery RGA. He lost two brothers in the war and returned to Vancouver, Canada after the war)